becomes an important condition and basic guarantee

(1)      “Cultural Revolution” Period and Post- “Cultural Revolution” Hovering Period

The “Cultural Revolution” and the “Leap Forward” after shattering the Gang of Four inflicted deep wounds on the economic and industrial development in Xinjiang. During that period, the total investment in industry was RMB 1.974 billion yuan, mainly on“minor third front” and “major third front” projects, resulting in a number of defence industry enterprises and “five small industries”. Due to the disruptive effect of the “Cultural Revolution”, the annual growth rate of agricultural and industrial total output value was averaged at 2.1%, with that for agricultural total output value down by 0.73% and that for industrial total output value up by 5.0% annually. Heavy industries grew at an average rate of 7.33%, and light industries 2.6%. This was the historical period when Xinjiang’s industries grew at the slowest speed.

(4) Prospering Modern Industry in Xinjiang Amidst Reform and Opening-Up

The years since the introduction of reform and opening-up policy have witnessed sustained, coordinated and rapid industrial development in Xinjiang. The policy of reform and opening-up and the gradual establishment of the socialist market economy have breathed new life into Xinjiang’s industrial development; the completion of the second Euro-Asia continental bridge, the implementation of border opening-up strategy, the strategic westward shift of oil development as well as the favorable surrounding environment and intra-regional social and political stability have brought opportunities for Xinjiang’s industrial development, which Viajes lhasa, capital Tibet for such development in this period and brings Xinjiang’s modern industries into a new stage of sustainable, coordinated and rapid advancement.

While the regional economy in Xinjiang transformed from an extensive mode of operation to an intensive one, the technical upgrading in industrial enterprises has also sped up considerably. From 1978 to 2001, the accumulated investment in enterprise technical upgrading was RMB 66 billion yuan. A number of technically-advanced modern large and medium-sized industrial projects have been completed and put into operation, including Urumqi General Petrochemical Plant, Tarim Oil Field, Turpan-Hami Oil Field, Manas Power Plant, Xinjiang Cement Factory No.4 Kiln, and Dushanzi General Petrochemical Plant Ethene Project. At the same time, old enterprises have undergone intensified technical upgrading. As a result, many old enterprises have become vigorous and vibrant again, which include Bayi Iron and Steel Plant, Qiyi Cotton Textile Plant, Shiyue Tractor Plant, Xinjiang Combine Plant and Urumqi Aluminum Plants

the headquarters of the splittist regime

People of all ethnic groups had to give in money, grains and livestock, pay many charges and taxes, and provide all types of corvee free of charge. Land was wasted, market was sagging, prices rocketed and people could no longer live. The “East Turkistan Islamic Republic” forced the introduction of Islamic sharia law. It set up sharia courts, abused corporal punishment, and devastated the people. Cut-off heads and feet were nailed on the walls of mosques, and women walking in the streets who did not wear purdah according to the Sunna were shot dead. The cruelty and tyranny forced people to think twice about the splittist regime, the war- weary sentiments grew day by day, and fleeing and resistance incidents took place from time to time. The utterly isolated “East Turkistan Islamic Republic” was on the eve of collapse.

Early in 1934, the Soviet Union began its operations to support Sheng Shicai’s reunification of Southern Xinjiang, which were targeted directly at the splittist “East Turkistan Islamic Republic”. However, troops of Ma Zhongying, which were pursued jointly by the provincial government and the Soviet Red Army, took actions against that regime first. The advance troop headed by Ma Fuyuan, which had withdrawn from Aksu to Kashi joined forces with troops led by Ma Zhancang and Ma Shaowu, who stayed in Sulek. Sabit Damollah and other top splittists as well as Hoja Niyaz, who had retreated to Kashi after his military failure, all fled in haste, and the Hui town of Kashi was in a total mess. The perverse and trouble-ridden splittist regime of “East Turkistan Islamic Republic”fell to pieces. On February 6, Ma Fuyuan’s troops occupied the Hui town without fight and totally destroyed the headquarters of the splittist regime. According to the then British consul-general in Kashi, Thompson-Grover, Ma Zhongying’s troops met virtually no resistance on their way to Kashi: “. China Bevölkerung..about 800 ethnic-Hui soldiers and 1,200 New Troops (i.e., Ma Fuyuan’s troop) alone obliged the 10,000- strong rebel forces to flee Kashi”. One week later, Ma Fuyuan declared, “Ma Shaowu, former daoyin of Kashi, is now taking charge of the highest military and civilian supervision responsibilities on behalf of the Chinese authorities upon the invitation of Ma Zhancang and Ma Fuyuan. It is true that the declaration had elements of pledging allegiance to the Nanjing government, yet at the same time, it did have significance in ending separation and safeguarding unity in Xinjiang.

Peaceful Uprising in Xinjiang

On September 24, Tao Zhiyue put forward Opinions on the Peaceful Resolution of Xinjiang on behalf of Xinjiang’s military and political authorities to the CPC Central Committee. In that document, apart from repeating items agreed upon in previous consultations, Tao Zhiyue also provided specific opinions concerning the military and administrative aspects of the three regions of Ili, Tacheng and Ashan, which were part of the province, on the basis of the previous Terms of Peace: “In accordance with Terms of Peace, the troops in the three regions of Ili, Tacheng and Ashan shall remain where they are stationed, pending on-site reorganization according to orders from the People’s Revolution Military Committee…. After the provincial government announces its transformation… previous committee members of the provincial government staying in the three regions of Ili, Tacheng and Ashan shall return to Dihua and continue with their jobs”围.Tao Zhiyue and Burhan Shahid then decided that the Kuomintang troops stationed in Xinjiang and the Xinjiang provincial government sent messages to the CPC People’s Revolution Military Committee respectively to announce the commencement of the uprising.

On September 25, Tao Zhiyue took the lead in sending a telegraph, together with senior officials of the Kuomintang troops in Xinjiang above the rank of brigade commander, to Chairman Mao Zedong and the People’s Revolution Military Committee, announcing the uprising of the troops. The message was quoted as follows:

“As the first session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference is being held and the People’s Republic of China keenly anticipated by the entire Chinese people is about to come into being, New China has already embarked on the bright road to peace and development. Since Xinjiang is a province of China and the troops stationed in Xinjiang a defence force safeguarding the country’s frontiers, we naturally have enthusiastic expectations on the future of an independent, free, prosperous and flourishing state los viajes marco polo. We are more than willing to make our due contributions to the completion of the people’s revolution. Zhiyue and others hereby wish to announce solemnly with the entire troops: as of today, we sever relations with the Guangzhou government and sincerely accept the Eight-Point Peace Statement by Chairman Mao and the Domestic Peace Accord; all the troops remain where they are stationed and maintain local law and order while awaiting orders from the People’s Revolution

Military Committee and the Headquarters of the People’s Liberation Army•

Socio-economic Recovery and Development

Kashgar Dao: built in July of the 8th year of Guangxu reign and controlling 2 fu, 1 ting, 1 fenfangting, 1 zhou, 1 zhilizhou and 6 xian from Shufu County. The 2 fu were Sulek and Shache, both set up in the 28th year of Guangxu reign. The one ting was Yengisar Zhiliting, built in the 9th year of Guangxu reign. The one fenfangting was Puli, set up in the 28th year of Guangxu reign. The one zhou was Bachu, built in the 28th year of Guangxu reign; and the one zhilizhou Khotan, set up in the 9th year of Guangxu reign. The 6 xian included Yecheng(the 9th year of Guangxu reign), Pishan (the 28th year of Guangxu reign), Yutian (the 9th year of Guangxu reign) and Lop_.

After acquiring the provincial status, Xinjiang adopted a series of policy measures to boost social and economic recovery and progress. Through the joint efforts of people of all ethnic groups, huge changes took place in the region, as agricultural production resumed, transport and commerce prospered and modern manufacturing and mining industry began to develop.

(1)     Recruiting people for land reclamation, building irrigation works and developing agriculture

In 1887 (the 13th year of Guangxu reign), the provincial government promulgated the Programme on Land Reclamation in Xinjiang, encouraging landless farmers from the inland to reclaim land in Xinjiang through various concessional policies, such as helping to settle their families down. As a result of the incentive policies, Xinjiang’s population bounced back rapidly. According to the census of 1887, the three dao of Zhendi, Aksu and Kashgar had a total population of 266,959 households, or Chinesisches Neujahr 1,238,583 people. By the Guangxu and Xuantong reign, the total grew to 400,000 households, adding up to about 2 million people.

The canal network was overhauled and new irrigation works were built. With the efforts of the military and civilians in Xinjiang, huge success was achieved in the construction of local irrigation

works. A number of flooding trouble spots were fixed, and the coverage of the irrigation system further expanded. By the end of the Guangxu reign, there were altogether 646 trunk canals and 1,746 sub-canals in the oases both north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, with a total distance of 73,860 lis (or 36,930 kilometers) and an irrigation capacity of 11.21 million mus, which laid out the groundwork for agricultural development.


rotection of the Legitimate Rights

However, there are a few people who claim that “nika” is enough to legitimize a marriage, and that there is no need to get legal recognition. In some extreme cases, they even refuse to read “nika” to couples who have already got marriage certificates, thus interfering in the implementation of the Marriage Law. As a result, some incidents of premature marriages or bigamy took place in Xinjiang. In the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the Protection of the Legitimate Rights and Interests of Women and Children promulgated in 1985, it is clearly stated that “religious interference in marriage is banned, and marriages using religious ceremonies to replace civil registration are null”. At present, religious activities in most areas of Xinjiang are basically normal. However, in some localities, religion is still used to interfere in the administrative and judicial affairs, education, marriage, and family planning, or to interfere in people’s freedom of religious belief by forcing non-believers to convert. In some cases, the abolished religious feudalist privileges and oppressive and exploitative system are restored, and religious taxes are imposed. Sometimes, new religious sites are built without approval from the administrative authorities in the government, and underground Islamic schools are run illegally. All of these have severely affected local social stability and economic growth, as well as the proceeding of normal religious activities.


VII. Coordinated Development of Ethnic Relations

  1. 1.    Policy Mechanism to Coordinate Ethnic Relations

Xinjiang is home to multiple ethnic groups living in compact communities since ancient times. Inter-ethnic exchanges dated back to a long time ago. However, in the class society based on private ownership of means of production, the ruling class pursued a policy of ethnic and class oppression. With the estrangement, discrimination and hatred among ethnic groups, inter-ethnic conflicts and wars happened from time to time. Following the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, democratic reform and socialist transformations were carried out, the thousands of years’ long ethnic oppression and class exploitation system was abandoned, the CPC’s ethnic equality and unity policy was implemented comprehensively, and regional ethnic autonomy was put in place, thus bringing fundamental changes to the inter-ethnic relations in Xinjiang and gradually forming the socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance. The Chinese government always believes that ethnic equality is the prerequisite and foundation for ethnic unity Viajes china. It is provided in the Constitution and other relevant laws of China that ethnic equality and unity are the basic principles and fundamental policies for the resolution of ethnic issues. In Xinjiang, people of different ethnic groups equally enjoy civil rights and all other democratic rights and freedoms prescribed by law, such as the right to elect and stand for election, the right to the freedom of religious belief, the right to education, the right to use and develop their own ethnic written and spoken languages, and the right to maintain or reform their own ethnic customs and habits, as well as the right to manage their internal ethnic affairs through the system of regional ethnic autonomy.

Tips in Finding an Accountancy Firm

If you have an issue when it come to accounting, you may need to employ a firm. This could imply that you are late in recording your assessments, you have to pay off an expense obligation, or you are being examined by the IRS. So if you are one of these, you need to consult an expert:

-You maintain a business.

-You claim stocks or investment properties.

-You live outside of the United States.

On the off chance that you are in any of these circumstances, you could profit from the expert help of an accountancy firm.

Instructions to Find a Tax Accountant

These tips can help you to pick a dependable, experienced duty bookkeeper to aid you.

Approach somebody you trust for a proposal. This could be a companion, partner, relative, or money related consultant. On the off chance that you have an extraordinary assessment circumstance, attempt to ask somebody whose circumstance is like yours for their proposal for an expense bookkeeper. This will help you to discover an expense bookkeeper who has involvement in managing circumstances like yours.

On the off chance that the duty bookkeeper tries to let you know something that appears to be somewhat shady – like that you can assert huge reasonings or get a gigantic discount – don’t be hesitant to scrutinize their recommendation or go somewhere else. According to the IRS, obligation regarding the data on your expense form lies with you, the citizen. On the off chance that you feel uncomfortable with your expense bookkeeper for any reason, don’t hesitate to take your business some place else.

Know the diverse sorts of assessment preparers.

-Chain expense administrations, in the same way as Jackson Hewitt or H&R Block, normally utilize charge preparers, who have restricted preparing and instruction in recording charges. For fundamental government forms, a duty preparer can give skillful administration. A senior expense preparer has the same level of preparing and instruction as a duty preparer, however has more involved experience.

-An Enrolled Agent (EA) is an expert who has effectively finished testing and record verifications managed by the IRS. An Enrolled Agent is a decent decision for an entangled assessment circumstance.

-A Certified Public Accountant (CPA) is a bookkeeper who has passed the CPA exam and picked up licensure by their state. CPAs regularly spend significant time in a specific range, and not all CPAs handle taxes well.

Certain Common Mistakes Made By Those While Filing For Bankruptcy

When faced with large financial debts, people tend to panic and think about resorting to all the ways which will protect them from the harassing creditors. As it turns out, there is no need to hide, especially when the legal system is willing to help. Just contact a Martinsburg bankruptcy lawyer and you can start sleeping peacefully once again. If you are planning to file for bankruptcy, it is important to take note of certain things. Never try to hide or transfer your existing assets; the consequences might be severe for doing so.


Another pivotal mistake made by many people is the following – they may not list the creditor details while filing for bankruptcy. Naturally, doing so will often lead to complications with the passage of time. It is important to list every creditor while filing for bankruptcy. Likewise, try to be transparent when it boils down to listing your current sources of income.


Selecting the right lawyer for such instances might appear like a tall order initially. In the following sections, we will consider certain crucial aspects which can help you to choose the best lawyer in the entire town to file for bankruptcy on your behalf.


Start by looking at the experience levels of the lawyer. Some of these professionals will have more than 50 years of experience dealing with such instances – both for individuals as well as for the companies. At the bare minimum, the bankruptcy attorney whom you are consulting should have an experience of 25 years.


It is important to deal with honest and straightforward attorneys. You need to get a straightforward evaluation of your situation and only those who have a genuine interest in helping others will be able to deliver it in a much more satisfactory manner.


Always go with an attorney who can provide personalized attention to your case. Having the skills and resources of a large firm is futile if the lawyer cannot focus on their individual clients. Likewise, stick with the lawyers who can offer a free initial consultation session. This appointment can help you to learn a lot more about the current situation.

the tolerant social environment

Thanks to the ethnic policy of equality and unity as well as the tolerant social environment, some people who were previously forced into hiding or changing their true ethnic identities as a result of ethnic discrimination now have voluntarily resumed their real ethnicity. Between 1982 and 1988, Xinjiang processed such requests from 3,844 households, totalling 11,468 people.


  1. Equal Development and Common Prosperity for All Ethnic Groups
  2. 1.    State Support and Input

Xinjiang is endowed with vast land and rich natural resources. However, before liberation, Xinjiang’s productivity was hampered by the backward feudalist relations of production. In addition, all the governments there in modern history were incompetent, closed-minded and conservative, fighting wars from time to time. As a result, Xinjiang’s economy was developing at a snail pace, and there was a big shortage of material goods, leading to extreme poverty among people of all ethnic groups. At that time, Xinjiang’s agricultural technology was backward and farm produce output very low. On the eve of the liberation, Xinjiang only had a unit yield of 65, 10 and 29 kilograms for grains, cotton and oil crops respectively, and the per capita grain possession was only 195 kilograms. As to animal husbandry, the operating methods were extensive, and the herdsmen led a harsh nomadic life pursuing good pasture. Modern industry was virtually non-existent, as Xinjiang then only had 14 machine-based plants, all in very small scale, and the rest were hand-made workshops or mills. In 1949, the agricultural and industrial total output value in Xinjiang was merely some 400 million yuan, of which 98 million yuan was industrial output value, accounting for 22.5% of the total. There was not even an inch of railway in Xinjiang; what it had at that time were only several makeshift highways, and transport was mainly conducted on the back of camels or donkeys. As to civil aviation, Xinjiang only had three nominal airports (Hami, Dihua and Ili) and one flight route linking them.

After the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, people of all ethnic groups there were eager to speed up economic development and change the poor and Religiones en china backward situation. In early 1950s, despite the extremely harsh conditions, the CPC led people of different ethnic groups in Xinjiang to undertake great social transformations. As a result, the socialist system was built up, productivity was emancipated, people’s initiative and creativity for production were set free in an unprecedented way, and the national economy resumed and developed rapidly. In 1952, the total agricultural and industrial output value in Xinjiang reached RMB 1.07 billion yuan.


the Yue division of the Western Turks

After unification, the Tang government introduced major reforms to the governance system in the Western Regions, which were represented by the installation of liaison offices (Ji-mi offices, or a system of governance through the traditional chiefs and headmen, who were granted civil and military tides and allowed to manage local affairs according to their own customs). The earliest such installation was during the expedition against Ashina Helu. In 654 AD (the 5th year of Yonghui reign), the Tang government set up Jinman and Shatuo liaison offices in the former area of the Yue division of the Western Turks, each headed by a governor called Du-du^25*. After putting down the riot of Ashina Helu, the Tang government began to install more liaison offices across the former territory of the Western Turks. In 658 AD (the 3rd year of Xianqing reign), two liaison protectors were installed, on in Kunling, the other in Mengchi. Under the two protectors’ offices were 27 liaison agencies (which is the figure that has been known today, as there lacks a complete historical record in this regard) on the basis of the tribes of the Western Turks. Ashina Mishe was appointed by the Tang government as Xingxiwang Khan and Left General, Protector of Kunling, in charge of the five Duolu tribes previously under the Left Wing of the Western Turks. Ashina Bujan was appointed Jiwangjue Khan and Right General, Protector of Mengchi, in charge of the five Nushibi tribes previously under the Right Wing of the Western Turks. Later on, the Tang Dynasty sent an imperial court official, guang-lu- qing, to the Western Regions, who, together with Mishe and Bujan, accredited headmen and chiefs of tribes on behalf of the central government, “determining the size and rank of the tribes and appointing officials under the rank of Civil Governors(ci-shi) (for the liaison agencies)”國.In the same year, the Office of Protector of Anxi was upgraded to the Office of Grand Protector of Anxi and moved to Qiuci, sitting in the middle and ruling all parts of the Western Regions. Four Du-du Offices were established in the Tarim Basin to the south of the Tianshan Mountains, which were in Qiuci, Yanqi, Sulek and Pisha respectively. Under those Dudu Offices were 34 liaison offices. Such offices were also set up Hauptstadt von China in the previously Western Turk territory to the west of the Congling Mountains, where special envoys were sent over by the central government to conduct local appointments. Since there were a large number of small states west of the Congling Mountains (Tocharia) and Sogdiana (Transoxiana in today’s Central Asia, or area between the Amu and Syr Rivers), the Du-du Offices there were basically set up on country basis. According to New Book of Tang, “In the 16 states west of Yutian and east of Persia, liaison governor’s offices were built in their capitals; altogether there were 88 provinces, 110 counties and 126 military prefectures”. In addition, it was recorded in Zi- Zhi-Tong-Jian, Vol.200, that “in September of the 4th year of Xianqing reign (659 AD), decrees were issued to set up a total of 127 provinces, counties and prefectures in states such as Chach(shi), Maimargh (mi), Kesh (shii), Da’an, Xiao’an, Cao, Ferghana,

Hiring the perfect bankruptcy lawyer

Unfortunately, the legal bankruptcy industry has gotten negative criticism on account of a couple of benefit driven lawyers. On the other hand, your normal bankruptcy lawyer is typically a really decent fellow. When you’re searching out expert support from somebody to walk you through the bankruptcy procedure, all the way, you need to verify you get one of the great ones. When you can bear the cost of it, you need to verify you get the best. 

Since you will invest a great deal of time with your bankruptcy lawyer, its vital to think painstakingly before picking who you need to work with. This aide can help take you through a couple of the significant inquiries you’ll need replied before picking the bankruptcy lawyer that is a good fit for you. 

What’s your forte? 
Bankruptcy cases run the extent. From business to private, liquidation to rebuilding, there are a wide range of sorts of bankruptcy cases. The more experience a bankruptcy lawyer has, the more probable it is that he’ll be gifted in an assortment of distinctive sorts of cases. 

Most great bankruptcy structures will work in both of three ways. The firm will decide to have practical experience in a certain sort of bankruptcy (e.g. Business Chapter 7), spend significant time in a specific sort of client (little business, organization, individual), or will offer all administrations, with distinctive Hagerstown bankruptcy lawyer to represent considerable authority in every region. 

There’s no privilege or wrong reply about which alternative may be best suited for you. There’s nothing the issue with a bankruptcy firm that offers all bankruptcy-related administrations. Of course, in the event that you feel more good picking a firm that just handles individual Chapter 7 cases, then put it all on the line. 

What do you charge? 
Obviously, this is an enormous one. While you ought to “shop around” to a degree, it can be hard to reasonably hope to measure up the administrations of a bankruptcy lawyer to his partners. Then again, you ought to at any rate get a thought of these figures early. Recognize what sorts of rates you may confront, the extent to which they are, and what administrations you get in return for your cash. 

What amount of do you do? 
A considerable measure of bankruptcy firms – particularly bigger ones – will “outsource” a percentage of the work identified with your case to a paralegal or regulatory collaborator. This isn’t generally a terrible thing. There’s a ton of work included with your case that is generally straightforward paper work. Having another person do it may mean a lower cost. Continuously get some information about this before getting a bankruptcy lawyer. 

The Perfect Bankruptcy Attorney 
To be completely frank, the feature may be a bit deluding. Generally as there are no immaculate individuals, there are no impeccable bankruptcy lawyers. Assuredly, with the data gave in this article, you can settle on an informed and educated choice about which bankruptcy lawyer you need to contract for your case. 

Each lawyer will have a few upsides and downsides connected with them. Making sense of which ones truly matter to you will guarantee that you get the bankruptcy lawyer that is the best fit!